20 Questions, Answer Key and Explanation About Rock Cycle

20 Questions, Answer Key and Explanation About Rock Cycle-  Hello readers, in this article we will discuss the rock cycle. Have you ever heard of the rock cycle?
The rock cycle is a fundamental concept in geology that describes the dynamic transitions through which rocks of one type can be converted into rocks of another type. The three main types of rocks are igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary, and each type can be transformed into another through various geological processes such as erosion, heat and pressure, and melting. Understanding the rock cycle helps to explain the characteristics and origins of different rock types and the processes that shape the Earth’s surface over time.

Some questions that might be related to the rock cycle include:

How do igneous rocks form?
What are the main differences between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks?
How do metamorphic rocks form?
How do sedimentary rocks form?
How do rocks change from one type to another in the rock cycle?
What role do weathering and erosion play in the rock cycle?
How does plate tectonics affect the rock cycle?

Table of Contents show

How do igneous rocks form?

1. How do igneous rocks form?

Igneous rocks form from the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Magma is molten rock that is found beneath the Earth’s surface, while lava is molten rock that is erupted from a volcano.

When magma cools and solidifies beneath the Earth’s surface, it forms plutonic rocks, also known as intrusive rocks. These rocks have large crystals because the magma cools slowly, allowing the minerals to grow and form visible crystals. Examples of plutonic rocks include granite and diorite.

When lava cools and solidifies above the Earth’s surface, it forms volcanic rocks, also known as extrusive rocks. These rocks have small crystals because the lava cools quickly, not allowing enough time for the minerals to grow and form visible crystals. Examples of volcanic rocks include basalt and rhyolite.

The composition of magma and lava determines the type of igneous rock that forms. Different minerals will crystallize at different temperatures, and therefore the rock will have a different composition. Additionally, the rate of cooling and solidification can also affect the composition and texture of the rock.

What are the main differences between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks?

2. What are the main differences between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks?

Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are the three main types of rocks that make up the Earth’s crust. Each type forms through a different process and has distinct characteristics.

Igneous rocks form from the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. They are classified based on their mode of formation, texture and mineral composition. Intrusive rocks are formed underground, and have large visible crystals, while extrusive rocks are formed on the surface and have small crystals. The composition of magma or lava and the rate of cooling and solidification determine the type of igneous rock.

Metamorphic rocks form from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat, pressure, and chemical processes. The existing rock is called the protolith. These rocks are classified based on their texture, mineral composition and the grade of metamorphism. They can be foliated (layered) or non-foliated.

Sedimentary rocks form from the accumulation and compaction of sediment, such as sand, gravel, and mud. They are classified based on their origin, texture, and composition. They can be clastic (made of fragments of other rocks), chemical (formed from minerals that precipitate out of a solution) or organic (formed from the accumulation of plant or animal debris).

In summary, igneous rocks form from cooled and solidified magma or lava, metamorphic rocks form from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat, pressure, and chemical processes, and sedimentary rocks form from the accumulation and compaction of sediment.

How do metamorphic rocks form?

3. How do metamorphic rocks form?

Metamorphic rocks form from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat, pressure, and chemical processes. The existing rock, called the protolith, can be an igneous, sedimentary or another metamorphic rock.

When rocks are subjected to intense heat and pressure, the minerals in the rock begin to change, creating a new rock with different mineral composition and texture. This process is called metamorphism. The grade of metamorphism refers to the intensity of the heat and pressure the rock was subjected to, which in turn determine the degree of change in the mineral composition and texture of the rock.

There are two main types of metamorphism: regional and contact. Regional metamorphism occurs when rocks are buried deep within the Earth’s crust and are subjected to high pressure and temperature. This type of metamorphism is usually associated with mountain building and can change large areas of rock. Contact metamorphism occurs when rocks are heated by an intrusion of magma or lava. This type of metamorphism is usually limited to a small area around the intrusion.

Metamorphic rocks can also be formed from chemical processes, such as the alteration of rocks by groundwater that carries dissolved minerals. This process is called hydrothermal metamorphism and can happen in both regional and contact metamorphism.

In summary, metamorphic rocks form from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat, pressure, and chemical processes. The intensity of the heat and pressure determine the degree of change in the mineral composition and texture of the rock. They are classified based on their texture, mineral composition and the grade of metamorphism.

How do sedimentary rocks form?

4. How do sedimentary rocks form?

Sedimentary rocks form from the accumulation and compaction of sediment, such as sand, gravel, and mud. The process of formation of sedimentary rocks can be divided into three main stages: sedimentation, compaction and cementation.

Sedimentation is the process of accumulation of solid particles, usually from weathering and erosion of pre-existing rocks, transported by water, wind, ice or gravity. The sediment can accumulate in a variety of environments, such as river and stream channels, ocean and lake bottoms, desert dunes, and glacial moraines.

Compaction is the process by which the sediment is squeezed together by the weight of the overlying layers. As the sediment is compacted, the pore spaces between the particles are reduced and the sediment becomes denser.

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Cementation is the process by which dissolved minerals precipitate out of the water between the sediment particles, binding them together to form a solid rock. The most common cementing minerals are calcite and silica.

Based on their origin, texture, and composition, sedimentary rocks can be classified into three main categories: clastic, chemical, and organic. Clastic rocks are made of fragments of other rocks, such as sandstone, conglomerate, and shale. Chemical rocks are formed from minerals that precipitate out of a solution, such as limestone, rock salt, and rock gypsum. Organic rocks are formed from the accumulation of plant or animal debris, such as coal and limestone.

In summary, sedimentary rocks form from the accumulation and compaction of sediment, and cementation. The process of formation of sedimentary rocks can be divided into three main stages: sedimentation, compaction and cementation. They are classified based on their origin, texture, and composition. Clastic, chemical and organic rocks are the main categories of sedimentary rocks.

How do rocks change from one type to another in the rock cycle?

5. How do rocks change from one type to another in the rock cycle?

Rocks change from one type to another in the rock cycle through a series of natural processes, including weathering, erosion, heat, pressure, and chemical reactions.

Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces by physical and chemical processes. Physical weathering occurs when rocks are broken down by the action of temperature changes, frost, and water. Chemical weathering occurs when rocks are altered by the action of water and air.

Erosion is the process by which weathered rock and soil are transported by water, wind, and ice to a new location. The transported material can accumulate and form new sedimentary rocks.

Heat and pressure can cause existing rocks to change into metamorphic rocks. Regional metamorphism occurs when rocks are buried deep within the Earth’s crust and are subjected to high pressure and temperature. Contact metamorphism occurs when rocks are heated by an intrusion of magma or lava.

Igneous rocks can form from the solidification of magma or lava. Magma is molten rock that is found beneath the Earth’s surface, while lava is molten rock that is erupted from a volcano. When magma or lava cools and solidifies, it forms igneous rocks.

In summary, rocks change from one type to another in the rock cycle through a series of natural processes, including weathering, erosion, heat, pressure, and chemical reactions. Sedimentary rocks can form from the accumulation and compaction of sediment, metamorphic rocks can form from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat, pressure and chemical processes, and igneous rocks can form from the solidification of magma or lava.

What role do weathering and erosion play in the rock cycle?

6. What role do weathering and erosion play in the rock cycle?

Weathering and erosion play important roles in the rock cycle by breaking down existing rocks and creating new ones.

Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces by physical and chemical processes. Physical weathering occurs when rocks are broken down by the action of temperature changes, frost, and water. Chemical weathering occurs when rocks are altered by the action of water and air. The products of weathering are smaller fragments of rock, called sediments.

Erosion is the process by which weathered rock and soil are transported by water, wind, and ice to a new location. The transported material can accumulate and form new sedimentary rocks. For example, sediment transported by a river may be deposited in a lake or ocean, and over time, these sediments will be compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rocks like sandstone or conglomerate.

Weathering and erosion also play a role in shaping the surface of the Earth, by breaking down mountains and creating new landscapes. Weathering and erosion also recycle materials from the surface back into the Earth, as the sediments generated by weathering can be buried and then metamorphosed or melted to become new rocks.

In summary, weathering and erosion are important processes in the rock cycle because they break down existing rocks and create new ones. Weathering creates sediments, which can be transported by erosion and deposited to form new sedimentary rocks, and also shape the surface of the Earth and recycle materials back into the Earth.

How does plate tectonics affect the rock cycle?

7. How does plate tectonics affect the rock cycle?

Plate tectonics plays a major role in the rock cycle by creating new crust, recycling old crust, and controlling the conditions for metamorphism and igneous activity.

Plate tectonics is the process by which the Earth’s lithosphere (crust and upper mantle) is broken into large plates that move around on the underlying plastic asthenosphere. At the boundaries between these plates, different types of interactions can occur, such as convergence, where two plates collide, and divergence, where two plates move away from each other.

When two plates converge, one of the plates may be forced down beneath the other, a process called subduction. This can cause the subducting plate to be heated and subject to high pressure and intense metamorphism, creating new metamorphic rocks. The overlying plate may also be deformed, creating new mountain ranges, and causing erosion to break down the rocks.

When two plates diverge, magma can rise up from the mantle to fill the gap, creating new crust and forming new igneous rocks. This process is known as seafloor spreading, and it is responsible for the formation of new crust at mid-ocean ridges.

In addition to the creation of new crust, plate tectonics also plays a role in recycling old crust. As a plate is subducted beneath another plate, it sinks into the mantle, where it is heated and melted, eventually becoming part of the mantle and recycling the material back into the Earth.

In summary, plate tectonics plays a major role in the rock cycle by creating new crust, recycling old crust, and controlling the conditions for metamorphism and igneous activity. Plate tectonics causes the formation of new rocks at divergent and convergent plate boundaries, and it recycles old rocks as the plate is subducted into the mantle.

Rock Cycle : 13 Questions, Answer Key and Explanation

NAME :
CLASS :
DATE :

Questions

1.Rock that forms when pressure, temperature, or chemical processes change existing rock.
A Igneous Rock
B Sedimentary Rock
C Metamorphic Rock
D Rock Cycle

2.The process by which water, wind, ice, and changes in temperature BREAK DOWN rock into fragments called sediments.
A Erosion
B Deposition
C Igneous Rock
D Weathering

3. A metamorphic rock can become ______.
A sedimentary
B metamorphic
C all of these
D igneous

4. This rock was formed by smaller pieces of rock that settled at the bottom of a lake millions of years ago. What type of rock is this?


A Metamorphic
B Sedimentary
C Igneous

5. This rock was found near the mouth of a volcano. What type of rock is this?


A Sedimentary
B Igneous
C Metamorphic

6. An igneous rock containing large crystals is most likely a(n)
A Chemical Rock
B Intrusive Rock
C Foliated Rock
D Extrusive Rock

7. You find a rock in which the grains are arranged in parallel bands of white and black crystals. The rock is probably a(n)
A Igneous rock
B Metamorphic rock
C Sedimentary rock
D Extrusive rock

8. As lava cools and crystallizes, what type of rock will form?
A Intrusive Igneous
B Sedimentary
C Metamorphic
D Extrusive Igneous

9. Fossils are only found in
A Igneous Rocks
B Sedimentary rocks
C Nonfoliated Metamorphic rocks
D Foliated Metamorphic rocks

10. As lava cools and crystallizes, what type of rock will form?
A Intrusive Igneous
B Sedimentary
C Metamorphic
D Extrusive Igneous

11. Sedimentary rock type made from bits of minerals and other Earth material that were weathered and moved is _?_ sedimentary rock.
A clastic
B chemical
C organic

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12. Small pieces of rock are also called
A erosion
B sediment
C coal
D organic matter

13.The process of layers become stuck together forming sedimentary rocks


A sticking
B deposition
C pressuring
D cementation

Answer Key

1.c
2.d
3.c
4.b
5.b
6.b
7.b
8.d
9.b
10.d
11.a
12.b
13.d

Explanation

Rock that forms when pressure, temperature, or chemical processes change existing rock.

1.Rock that forms when pressure, temperature, or chemical processes change existing rock.

Metamorphic rock is a type of rock that forms when existing rocks are altered by changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical processes. The existing rock, called the protolith, can be an igneous, sedimentary, or another metamorphic rock.

During metamorphism, the minerals in the rock begin to change, creating a new rock with different mineral composition and texture. This process can happen deep in the Earth’s crust or near the surface, and the intensity of the heat and pressure determine the degree of change in the mineral composition and texture of the rock.

Metamorphism can happen in different types of environments, such as when rocks are buried deep in the Earth’s crust, subjected to high temperatures and pressures, and transformed into new rocks. This process is called regional metamorphism. Metamorphism can also happen when rocks are heated by an intrusion of magma or lava, a process called contact metamorphism.

Chemical processes can also cause metamorphism, such as the alteration of rocks by groundwater that carries dissolved minerals. This process is called hydrothermal metamorphism and can happen in both regional and contact metamorphism.

Metamorphic rocks are classified based on their texture, mineral composition and the grade of metamorphism. They can be foliated (layered) or non-foliated. Some examples of metamorphic rocks include slate, schist, gneiss, and marble.

In summary, metamorphic rock is a type of rock that forms when existing rocks are altered by changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical processes. The existing rock can be an igneous, sedimentary, or another metamorphic rock. The intensity of the heat and pressure determine the degree of change in the mineral composition and texture of the rock, and can happen in different types of environments, such as regional or contact metamorphism, and hydrothermal metamorphism.

The process by which water, wind, ice, and changes in temperature BREAK DOWN rock into fragments called sediments.

2.The process by which water, wind, ice, and changes in temperature BREAK DOWN rock into fragments called sediments.

The process by which water, wind, ice, and changes in temperature break down rock into fragments called sediments is called weathering. Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks, and it can happen on the surface of the Earth or underground.

Physical weathering occurs when rocks are broken down by the action of temperature changes, frost, and water. This can happen through processes like frost wedging, where water seeps into cracks in the rock and freezes, expanding and breaking the rock apart. Another example is thermal expansion, where rock expands and contracts with changes in temperature, leading to the formation of cracks and the breaking down of the rock.

Chemical weathering occurs when rocks are altered by the action of water and air. This can happen through processes like dissolution, where water dissolves minerals in the rock, or oxidation, where oxygen in the air reacts with minerals in the rock to change their composition. Another example is acid dissolution, where water containing dissolved acids reacts with the minerals in the rock, breaking it down.

Weathering can lead to the formation of a variety of fragments, such as clay, sand, and gravel, which can be transported and deposited by erosion to form new sedimentary rocks. Weathering also plays a role in shaping the surface of the Earth, breaking down mountains and creating new landscapes.

In summary, weathering is the process by which water, wind, ice, and changes in temperature break down rock into fragments called sediments. Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks, it can happen on the surface of the Earth or underground and it can be divided into physical and chemical weathering. Weathering can lead to the formation of a variety of fragments, such as clay, sand, and gravel, which can be transported and deposited by erosion to form new sedimentary rocks, and also shape the surface of the Earth.

A metamorphic rock can become ______.

3. A metamorphic rock can become ______.

A metamorphic rock can become an igneous rock through a process called melting. Melting occurs when a metamorphic rock is subjected to high temperatures and pressures, causing the minerals in the rock to melt and form a new rock called magma. As the magma cools and solidifies, it forms an igneous rock. This process can happen in the Earth’s crust or in the upper mantle, and it is a common part of the rock cycle.

Melting is the reverse process of solidification, which happens when magma or lava cools and solidifies to form an igneous rock. When a metamorphic rock is subjected to high temperatures and pressures, it melts and becomes magma, which can solidify again to form an igneous rock.

A metamorphic rock can also become a sedimentary rock through a process called weathering and erosion. Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces by physical and chemical processes. Erosion is the process by which weathered rock and soil are transported by water, wind, and ice to a new location. The transported material can accumulate and form new sedimentary rocks.

In summary, a metamorphic rock can become an igneous rock through a process called melting and it can become a sedimentary rock through a process called weathering and erosion. These processes are common in the rock cycle and they allow for the recycling of materials in the Earth’s crust and the formation of new rocks.

This rock was formed by smaller pieces of rock that settled at the bottom of a lake millions of years ago. What type of rock is this?

4. This rock was formed by smaller pieces of rock that settled at the bottom of a lake millions of years ago. What type of rock is this?

This rock was formed by smaller pieces of rock that settled at the bottom of a lake millions of years ago, this is a type of sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks form from the accumulation and compaction of sediment, such as sand, gravel, and mud. They are classified based on their origin, texture, and composition. Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of fragments of other rocks, such as sandstone, conglomerate, and shale. Clastic sedimentary rocks can be formed by the accumulation of sediment transported by water and deposited at the bottom of a lake. The sediment is then compacted and cemented together to form a rock.

This rock was found near the mouth of a volcano. What type of rock is this?

5. This rock was found near the mouth of a volcano. What type of rock is this?

This rock was found near the mouth of a volcano, it is likely an igneous rock. Igneous rocks form from the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. They are classified based on their mode of formation, texture, and mineral composition. Extrusive rocks are formed on the surface, and have small crystals, and are formed from lava which is erupted from volcano. So, this rock that was found near the mouth of a volcano is most likely an extrusive igneous rock. Examples of extrusive igneous rocks include basalt and andesite.

An igneous rock containing large crystals is most likely a(n)

6. An igneous rock containing large crystals is most likely a(n)

An igneous rock containing large crystals is most likely a plutonic rock. Plutonic rocks are also known as intrusive rocks, and they form from slow cooling of magma deep within the earth’s crust. Because the magma cools slowly, the crystals in the rock have time to grow large, resulting in a coarse-grained texture. Examples of plutonic rocks include granite, diorite, and gabbro. These rocks have large crystals compared to the fine-grained texture of volcanic rocks (extrusive rocks) formed on the surface by the cooling of lava.

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You find a rock in which the grains are arranged in parallel bands of white and black crystals. The rock is probably a(n)

7. You find a rock in which the grains are arranged in parallel bands of white and black crystals. The rock is probably a(n)

The rock described, with parallel bands of white and black crystals is probably a metamorphic rock called a gneiss. Gneiss is a foliated metamorphic rock, meaning that it has a layered or banded texture. The banding is caused by the alignment of mineral grains during metamorphism. The white and black crystals described, are likely to be feldspar and biotite mica respectively, both common minerals in gneiss. Gneiss is formed by the high-grade metamorphism of existing igneous or sedimentary rocks, which means that it has experienced high pressure and temperature. It is a common rock type in areas of mountain building and has a characteristic banded appearance.

As lava cools and crystallizes, what type of rock will form?

8. As lava cools and crystallizes, what type of rock will form?

As lava cools and crystallizes, an igneous rock called basalt will form. Basalt is a dark-colored, fine-grained rock that is typically composed of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. It forms when lava cools quickly on the surface, such as when it erupts from a volcano. The rapid cooling causes the minerals in the lava to crystallize quickly, resulting in small crystals and a fine-grained texture. Basalt is the most common type of rock in the Earth’s crust and can be found on the ocean floor and in volcanic landscapes. It is also the main rock type in the oceanic crust.

Fossils are only found in

9. Fossils are only found in

Fossils are typically only found in sedimentary rocks, but they can also be found in metamorphic rocks in rare cases. Sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, and shale, are formed from the accumulation of sediment, and they often contain the remains of plants and animals that lived in the past. These remains can be preserved in the rock as fossils.

Fossils can also be found in metamorphic rocks in rare cases when the conditions of metamorphism are not too intense and the original fossils are not destroyed during the process, and the fossils are still recognizable.

Sedimentary rocks are the most common rock type in which fossils are found, because they form from the accumulation of sediment and are more likely to preserve the remains of plants and animals.

As lava cools and crystallizes, what type of rock will form?

10. As lava cools and crystallizes, what type of rock will form?

As lava cools and crystallizes, an igneous rock will form. The type of igneous rock that forms depends on the rate at which the lava cools, mineral content and composition.
If the lava cools slowly below the earth’s surface, such as in large intrusions or batholiths, the rock that forms will have large crystals and is called plutonic rock, like granite, diorite, and gabbro.
If the lava cools quickly on the surface, such as when it erupts from a volcano, the rock that forms will have small crystals and is called volcanic rock, like basalt and andesite.

Sedimentary rock type made from bits of minerals and other Earth material that were weathered and moved is _?_ sedimentary rock.

11. Sedimentary rock type made from bits of minerals and other Earth material that were weathered and moved is _?_ sedimentary rock.

A sedimentary rock type made from bits of minerals and other Earth material that were weathered and moved is a clastic sedimentary rock. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of fragments of other rocks, such as sand, gravel, and mud, and are formed by the accumulation and compaction of sediment that was transported by water, wind or ice. Clastic sedimentary rocks are classified based on their particle size, texture and composition. Examples of clastic sedimentary rocks include sandstone, conglomerate, and shale.

Small pieces of rock are also called

12. Small pieces of rock are also called

Small pieces of rock are also called sediment or clasts. Sediment refers to any loose material that has been transported by natural forces such as wind, water, ice or gravity, and deposited in a new location. Clasts are fragments of rocks, minerals or other materials that have been broken down by weathering, erosion and transported by different agents such as water, ice, wind, or gravity, and subsequently deposited in a new location. Clasts can vary greatly in size and shape, from large boulders to tiny grains of sand. The size and shape of the clasts can give clues about the environment in which the sediment was deposited, and how it was transported.

The process of layers become stuck together forming sedimentary rocks

13.The process of layers become stuck together forming sedimentary rocks

The process of layers becoming stuck together to form sedimentary rocks is called lithification. Lithification is the process that transforms loose sediment into solid rock. It involves several steps: compaction, cementation, and recrystallization.

Compaction is the process by which the sediment particles are pressed together, reducing the volume of the sediment and increasing its density. Compaction is caused by the weight of overlying sediment and the pressure of fluids within the sediment.

Cementation is the process by which minerals precipitate out of fluids and glue the sediment particles together. These fluids can be groundwater that carries dissolved minerals, or fluids that are present within the sediment. As the fluids percolate through the sediment, they deposit mineral cement between the sediment particles, binding them together.

Recrystallization is the process by which the mineral grains in the sediment change their shape and size, as a result of changes in temperature, pressure, and chemical conditions. This process can occur as a result of compaction and cementation, and it helps to solidify the sediment and form rock.

In summary, lithification is the process of layers becoming stuck together to form sedimentary rocks. It involves several steps: compaction, cementation, and recrystallization. Compaction is the process by which the sediment particles are pressed together, reducing the volume of the sediment and increasing its density. Cementation is the process by which minerals precipitate out of fluids and glue the sediment particles together, and recrystallization is the process by which the mineral grains in the sediment change their shape and size, as a result of changes in temperature, pressure, and chemical conditions.

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Conclusion

In conclusion, the rock cycle is the process by which rocks are constantly changing from one form to another through various geological processes. The three main types of rocks are igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks form from the solidification of magma or lava, metamorphic rocks form from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat, pressure, or chemical processes, and sedimentary rocks form from the accumulation and compaction of sediment. Weathering and erosion are important processes that break down rocks and create new sediment, and plate tectonics plays a major role in the rock cycle by creating new crust, recycling old crust, and controlling the conditions for metamorphism and igneous activity. Understanding the rock cycle helps us to understand how the Earth’s surface has changed over time and how it continues to change today.

 

 

Originally posted 2023-01-22 03:06:04.